注水诱发地震的研究进展
作者:
作者单位:

1.中国地震局地质研究所地震动力学国家重点实验室;2.广东省地震局

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基金项目:

国家自然科学(U1839211),地震科技星火计划攻关项目(XH201905)


Progress in studies of injection-induced earthquakes
Author:
Affiliation:

1.State Key Laboratory of Earthquake Dynamics,Institute of Geology,China Earthquake Administration;2.Guangdong Earthquake Agency

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    摘要:

    研究注水诱发地震的特征、发生机理和最大可能震级等对开展诱发地震的预防、危险性评价、减灾策略制定等方面的工作具有重要意义。本文系统地梳理了国内外关于注水诱发地震研究的主要认识和分歧。结果表明:诱发地震的最大可能震级由断层大小和应力状态等地质条件决定,受注水压力和累积注水量等注水参数的影响;识别诱发地震的可靠方法取决于地震和注水之间的时空相关性, 统计模型的参数以及断层活化分析等一系列证据链条;当断层与流体储层之间存在水力连接时,孔隙压力扰动是诱发地震的主要发生机制,反之岩石基质体积变形引起的孔隙弹性应力变化主导了诱发地震的过程。此外,注水诱发的稳定滑动传播到断层的孕震部分、流体的化学作用和小地震级联触发效应也可能在注水诱发地震中发挥重要的作用。本文的研究将为注水诱发地震机理研究和减轻破坏性诱发地震灾害提供一定的科学参考。

    Abstract:

    It is significant to study the characteristics, mechanisms, and maximum earthquake magnitude of injection-induced earthquakes to carry out the work on preventing induced earthquakes, risk assessment, and disaster reduction policy formulation. This study systematically collates the main understandings and disputes on injection-induced earthquakes. The results indicate that geological conditions, such as fault size and stress state, determine the maximum earthquake magnitude. The pressure, cumulative injection volume, and other injection parameters also affect the maximum earthquake magnitude. A reliable way to identify induced earthquakes depends on serious evidence, including spatiotemporal correlation between earthquakes and fluid injection, parameters involved in statistical models, and fault reactivation analysis. When the faults are hydraulically connected to the fluid reservoir, the induce mechanism is commonly attributed to pore-pressure perturbation. Instead, when the fluid pathway is unavailable, the poroelastic stressing may play a dominant role in inducing earthquakes. Aseismic slip, chemical water-rock interaction, and small earthquake interactions also may play essential roles in inducing earthquakes. This study will provide a scientific reference for conducting the inducing mechanism research and promoting the mitigation of destructive disasters caused by induced earthquakes.

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  • 收稿日期:2022-07-08
  • 最后修改日期:2022-09-21
  • 录用日期:2022-11-17
  • 在线发布日期: 2023-01-05
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