To study the dynamic response characteristics of loess slopes under dynamic seismic action, a 1:20 scaled loess slope test model was established based on a natural loess slope along the Baoji-Lanzhou passenger dedicated line. Through large scale shaking table test and other methods such as time history analysis, wavelet packet analysis, and response spectrum analysis, we analyzed the variation rules of the first frequency band energy proportion (E1), second frequency band energy proportion (E2), characteristic period, response spectrum amplitude, peak acceleration (PGA), and amplification factor of acceleration (AFA) of the loess slope structure under seismic load . Results show that according to the transformation law of E1 and E2,the maximum value of E1+E2 is located at the top of the slope. In the elastoplastic stage, the time for the same seismic wave to reach the characteristic period under different seismic intensities is basically the same; the time for the El Centro wave to reach the characteristic period lags behind that of the Wenchuan Tangyu wave, and the amplitudes of its acceleration and velocity response spectrum are slightly smaller. The PGA and AFA amplification effects in the horizontal direction of the model are in the order of their magnitudes: failure stage＞plastic stage＞elastic stage. During the earthquake, the location closer to the slope surface is more likely to be destroyed and to be destroyed first, which proves the existence of the“whiplash effect.”It is recommended that anti seismic protection measures should be conducted at the surface and top position of the loess slope in actual projects.