The popularization of the scientific knowledge of earthquake prevention and disaster mitigation is conducive to enhancing public awareness of earthquake prevention and disaster reduction. Reducing social and economic losses and human casualties when earthquakes occur is of great significance. This work analyzes the public cognition and demand for earthquake disaster prevention and mitigation science popularization by means of a questionnaire survey and draws the following conclusions.(1)The overall level of public cognition of earthquake science popularization in Shandong Province is low, and the level of mastery of basic earthquake knowledge is limited. The ability to recognize earthquake rumors is insufficient, and the ability for earthquake emergency avoidance needs to be strengthened. The level of mastery of emergency rescue skills and the cognition of principles of earthquake avoidance are low.(2)The public in Shandong Province has a high demand for science popularization content on earthquake emergency avoidance and skills, earthquake forecasting and warning, and earthquake rumor recognition, as well as the earthquake resistance of buildings.(3)The most expected way for the public in Shandong Province to obtain popular science information on earthquake prevention and disaster reduction is through mobile apps or websites, and the respondents are more willing to participate in offline activities, i.e., earthquake emergency drills, popular science lectures, and popular science museum visits. In view of the above actual situation, this work provides some suggestions for improving the work of earthquake science popularization.